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Compatibility studies annual batches thereafter order diclofenac gel 20 gm with mastercard rheumatoid arthritis vertigo, in accordance with the approved should be conducted on at least the lowest and highest stability protocol discount diclofenac gel 20gm amex arthritis in fingers at age 30. The accumulated stability data should concentrations of the drug product in each diluent as be submitted in the subsequent annual reports. The stability and compatibility otherwise noted, if the data give no reason to believe that studies should be performed on at least three batches of the proposed change will alter the stability of the drug the drug product. Compatibility studies should be product, the previously approved expiration dating period repeated if the drug product or any of the recommended can be used. Ordinarily, the approved expiration A change in the manufacturing process of the drug sub- dating period for the drug product may be retained if the stance at the approved manufacturing site should be sup- drug substance is shown to be of comparable quality (e. If the drug sub- stability of the drug substance and the resulting drug prod- stance is not of comparable quality, then more extensive uct. Because chemical stability of a substance is an intrinsic stability data on the drug product manufactured from the property, changes made in the preparation of that substance drug substance will be needed. Special con- will be addressed in a separate forthcoming guidance on cerns for biological products may exist if changes are made postapproval changes for the drug substance. Site Change for the Drug Product Speciﬁc submission and stability issues will be addressed in detail in a separate forthcoming guidance For a move of the manufacturing site within an existing dealing with postapproval changes for drug substances. Site changes consist of changes in the location of the site For a move to a different campus using similar equip- of manufacture, packaging operations, or analytical test- ment and manufacturing processes, stability data on the ing laboratory both of company-owned as well as contract drug product in the new facility should be submitted in manufacturing facilities. Three months of accelerated ﬁling mechanisms indicated below apply to site changes and available long-term stability data on one to three only. If other changes occur concurrently, the most exten- batches of drug product manufactured in the new site is sive data package associated with the individual changes recommended, depending on the complexity of the dos- should be submitted. A commitment should be made to conduct long- ing site for any portion of the manufacturing process of a term stability studies on the ﬁrst or ﬁrst three production drug substance or drug product is made, sufﬁcient data to batch or batches of the drug product, depending on the show that such a change does not alter the characteristics dosage form and the existence of a signiﬁcant body of or compromise the quality, purity, or stability of the drug information, manufactured at the new site in accordance substance or drug product may be necessary. If the stability data should include a side-by-side comparison of all attributes are satisfactory, the existing expiration dating period may to demonstrate comparability and equivalency of the drug be used. Site Change for the Drug Substance A stand-alone packaging operation site change for solid For a change limited to an alternate manufacturing site for oral dosage–form drug products using containers and clo- the drug substance using similar equipment and manufac- sures in the approved application should be submitted as turing process, stability data on the drug substance may a Changes Being Effected Supplement. No up-front sta- not always be necessary because, for essentially pure drug bility data are necessary. The facility should have a current substances, stability is an intrinsic property of the material. The standard annual batches thereafter on long-term stability studies stability commitment should be made to conduct long-term using the approved protocol in the application and to sub- stability studies in accordance with the approved stability mit the resulting data in annual reports. Stability Testing of Drug Substances and Drug Products 63 A packaging site change for other than solid oral dos- G. The stability data packages for changes in container and closure of a drug product vary. Change in Testing Laboratory determining the stability data package recommendation is whether the protective properties of the container and clo- An analytical testing laboratory site change may be sub- sure system are affected by the proposed change. Protective mitted as a Changes Being Effected Supplement under properties of the container and closure system include, but certain circumstances. Changes that may affect these properties should be supported by a greater amount D. A solid dosage form will A change limited to the manufacturing process of the drug generally be less affected by a container change than a product, such as a change in the type of equipment used, liquid dosage form. Because considerably more informa- can be supported by the submission of sufﬁcient data to tion will be needed to document a container and closure show that such a change does not alter the characteristics change than just stability data, applicants are encouraged or compromise the stability of the drug product. Such a modiﬁcation to the approved stability protocol nature of the reprocessing procedure and any speciﬁc should be submitted as a Prior Approval Supplement. The effect it might have on the existing stability proﬁle of the justiﬁcation may include a demonstrated history of satis- drug. The expiration dating period for a reprocessed batch factory product stability, which may in turn include, but should not exceed that of the parent batch, and the expi- not be limited to, full long-term stability data from at least ration date should be calculated from the original date of three production batches. For example, drug products with an expiration procedure, which can range from repackaging a batch when dating period of less than 18 months should be tested at packing equipment malfunctions to regrinding and recom- quarterly intervals, products with an expiration dating pressing tablets. The appropriate chemistry review team period of 18 but not more than 30 months should be tested should be contacted to determine whether the reprocessing semiannually, and products with an expiration dating procedure is acceptable. Any batch of the drug product that period of 36 months or longer should be tested annually.
Combinations of the two approaches are found in the realm of chemogenomics buy cheap diclofenac gel 20gm line rheumatoid arthritis medication effects, which will be discussed later 20gm diclofenac gel with visa arthritis ear pain. While structure-based approaches typically place a high demand on computational resources, these allow for the discovery of truly new chemistry. Moreover, structure-based approaches become 10 more feasible with the steady growth of computing power (known as “Moore’s law” ) available to the medicinal chemist. On the other hand, ligand-based virtual screening has been shown to perform often equally well compared to structure-based virtual 11 screening. Finding the desired molecules in chemical space may be accomplished in two distinct ways: first, using selection or prioritization of molecules, and second, by performing a steered search. With selection, molecules with the desired properties are selected (or molecules with undesirable properties are filtered out) from the total set of possible molecules. Prioritization on the other hand, ranks molecules according to the desired properties and selects a certain number of the top-ranked molecules. Note that in practice not the real chemical space is screened; instead, large virtual libraries, or existing libraries of commercially available or in-house compounds are screened. The second approach to find the desired molecules is exploration of chemical space by performing a steered search. With this approach, a ‘walk’ is conducted along neighboring molecules in the direction of molecules with properties that are more favorable. Neighboring molecules are molecules that can be transformed into one another by modifications of the chemical structure. The general principle is to move gradually towards better molecules by repeatedly selecting the best neighboring molecule as the next ‘step’. The process is comparable to what medicinal chemists do to search for molecules with improved properties by synthesizing a set of derivatives from a starting structure. However, with a steered search in chemical space, the properties of the virtual molecules are predicted by computational methods. Analysis of existing ligands may help in the search for new bioactive compounds, provided that the set of ligands is sufficiently large. For both virtual exploration and ligand analysis, compounds are transformed into an abstract representation that can be processed by a computer, for instance, 3D minimized structures or molecular graphs. A graph is a mathematical object used to represent a molecule, consisting of nodes, the atoms, which are connected by edges, the bonds. Changing how molecules are represented as graph allows different types of analyses, as demonstrated in chapters 3, 4, and 5. Manipulating the molecular graph is equivalent to modifying the corresponding molecule, and is employed in chapter 6. In the human proteome more than 800 known and putative members exist, which are involved in the transduction of a range of stimuli, including small molecules and 12 proteins, and even photons (light). Apart from the bovine rhodopsin structure that was published a decade ago, a handful of ‘druggable’ receptors has been crystallized to reveal their 3D architecture (for a recent review see ref. This small number does not even account for the option of co- crystallizing different ligands, which has been done in a few cases now and which would exponentially increase the number of possible structures. The scarcity of structure information does not necessarily have to be problematic though, since ligand-based approaches may even outperform structure-based approaches, e. A range of ligand-based approaches have been successfully applied for screening and design of new ligands, such as property-based methods, 17, 18, 19 pharmacophore models, and substructure methods. Two of these methods, pharmacophore- and substructure-based methods, will be discussed later in this thesis. Cheminformatics is the application of 21 informatics methods to research questions in the field of chemistry, in particular 22 related to drug discovery and design. It is a relatively new science that combines a number of other disciplines, including computational and medicinal chemistry, and computer and information science. There is still some disagreement over the name; although the ‘chemoinformatics’ spelling clearly dominated the early literature, it is 20,23 now overtaken by ‘cheminformatics’; it is also favored by the Journal of 24 Cheminformatics, hence we will use the ‘cheminformatics’ spelling here. In 1998, the first formal definition of cheminformatics was given by Brown, stating: “The use of information technology and management has become a critical part of the drug 16 General Introduction discovery process. Chemoinformatics is the mixing of those information resources to transform data into information and information into knowledge for the intended purpose of making better decisions faster in the area of drug lead identification and 25 organization. This ‘data deluge’ is most apparent in research programs that search for new biologically active molecules, which explains the prominent role of cheminformatics in the pharmaceutical industry. This ranges from chemical structure representation, to storage and retrieval of chemical information.
Hyperthermia may make some cancer cells more sensitive to radiation or harm other cancer cells that radiation cannot damage cheap diclofenac gel 20gm amex psoriatic arthritis diet recipes. Thus cheap diclofenac gel 20 gm with amex arthritis pain on knee, it is almost used with other forms of cancer therapy, such as radiation and chemotherapy (10). Laser therapy is most commonly used to treat super- ﬁcial tumors on the surface of the body or the lining of internal organs. Photody- namic therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses a drug called a photosensitizer or photosensitizing agent (12). When photosensitizers are exposed to this speciﬁc wavelength, they produce singlet oxygen, which destroys cancer cells. Targeted cancer therapy uses target-speciﬁc drugs that invade cancer cells and block the growth and metasta- sis of cancer cells by interfering with speciﬁc molecules involved in carcinogenesis and tumor growth (13). To overcome the disadvantages of current cancer treatment techniques, the scientiﬁc community has turned toward nanotechnology to develop newer and more effective drug carrier systems to safely shepherd the anticancer drugs to the cancer cells. Examples of drugs in this class include methotrexate, ﬂuorouracil, hydroxyurea, and mercaptopurine. A few examples of drugs in this class include cisplatin and antibiotics such as daunorubicin, doxorubicin, and etoposide. Disruption of Synthesis or Breakdown of Mitotic Spindles Mitotic spindles serve as molecular railroads with “north and south poles” in the cell when it starts to divide. These drugs disrupt the formation of these spindles and therefore interrupt cell division. Classic examples of drugs in this class of mitotic disrupters include vinblastine, vincristine, and paclitaxel. The applications of nanoparticles as carriers for these anticancer drugs are discussed in the following sections. Results of numerous scientiﬁc research studies done in nanotech- nology and nanomedicine are inspiring the scientiﬁc community to discover new, innovative, noninvasive tools at the nanoscale level for such purposes. Nanoscale cantilevers (15) and quantum dots (16,17) are being studied as cancer detection tools at the cellular level. If the tumor has not been detected in its early stage, treatment methods should be devised to eradicate the fully developed cancer cells without harming the normal, healthy cells of human body. The various types of nanoparticles that are currently studied for their use as drug delivery systems are polymeric micelles, magnetic nanoparticles, colloidal gold nanoparticles, and ceramic nanoparticles (18–20). These nanoparticulate-based drug delivery systems can be characterized for their localization in tumor cells by coating them with tumor-speciﬁc antibodies, peptides, sugars, hormones, and anticarcinogenic drugs. These nanoparticles have been effectively coupled with the abovementioned anti- carcinogenic chemotherapeutic agents and have been tested for their target speci- ﬁcity. These nanoparticles are superior over conventionally available drug delivery systems, as the chemotherapeutic agents can be targeted to a speciﬁed area of the human body by adding nanoscale surface receptors. These receptors speciﬁcally recognize the target tissue and bind to it and release the drug molecules (21). Drugs can also be pro- tected from degradation by encapsulating them with nanoparticle coatings (22). As nanoparticles are extremely small, they can penetrate through smaller capillaries and are easily taken up by cancer cells. The use of biodegradable nanoparticles allows sustained drug release over a period of time (23). Thus, nanoparticles as drug delivery systems, with enhanced target speciﬁcity, can overcome the limitations of conventional cancer treatment techniques. There are numerous other nanobiotechnology-based approaches being developed to formulate nanoparticles as carriers of anticar- cinogenic agents. These include dendrimers, chitosan nanoparticles, low-density lipoproteins, nanoemulsions, nanolipospheres, nanoparticle composites, polymeric nanocapsules, nanospheres, and nanovesicles. Their applications in nanoencapsu- lation and targeted drug delivery of anticancer drugs, in combination with radio- therapy, laser therapy, thermotherapy, photodynamic therapy, ultrasound therapy, and nanoparticle-mediated gene therapy, have been extensively reviewed in the 60 Subramani literature (24). The following sections discuss the most promising groups of nanoparticles and their applications in drug delivery for cancer treatment. Gold Nanoparticles for Anticarcinogenic Drug Delivery Colloidal gold nanoparticles are the most commonly used nanoparticles for anti- carcinogenic drug delivery. The physical and chemical properties of colloidal gold nanoparticles allow more than one protein molecule to bind to a single particle of colloidal gold.
Aside from treatments of its more sensational aspects purchase 20 gm diclofenac gel visa arthritis relief massage, -3- very little information on the topic appears in open-source literature trusted 20 gm diclofenac gel rheumatoid arthritis yoga therapy. The dearth of sober information on interrogation has had the unfortunate consequence of facilitating the exploitation of United States prisoners of war by Communist captors (64). Our purpose here has been to bring together in one book authoritative information on methods of behavioral control that have been the subject of considerable speculation in discussions of interrogation. Scientists representing a variety of fields have examined a number of hypothetical means that might occur to an interrogator for eliciting information against the will of his subject. Their attention has been more on what could be done than on what actually may have been done. All the questions that are frequently raised about these methods cannot be answered by such an approach, however, since many of them are not translatable into scientific terms. Origin of Nonrational Concern Many scholars have observed that science replaces magic and witchcraft as societies secularize. The problems of living in the present age remain much as they have always been, however. The aspirations and anxieties that not so long ago were projected onto conceptions of the wizard and witch are now directed to the scientist. These opposites are incongruously exaggerated in paranoid thinking, one of the most prevalent mental symptoms of Western man. They doubtless exist in the fantasy of most persons, to extents that differ from paranoia in intensity and pervasiveness. The profound fascination of the topic under consideration may stem from the primitive, unconscious, and extreme responses to these problems, which gain expression in myth, dreams, drama, and literature. On the one hand, there is the dream- wish for omnipotence; on the other, the wish and fear of the loss of self through its capture by another. The current interest in problems of manipulation of behavior involves basic ambivalences over omnipotence and dependency, which, if projected, find a ready target in the "omniscient" scientist (30). With the perfection of mass-destruction weapons and the elaboration of totalitarian efforts to control human behavior, the myth has begun to converge with aspects of reality. Regarding weapons of physical destruction, responsible scientific evidence is offered along with uninformed and ill-informed surmises, both in support of forecasts of doom and in rebuttal. In the case of the threats science poses to human autonomy, however, sensationally speculative expressions, like those of the Brave New World that Aldous Huxley (21) recently revisited, have enjoyed a near monopoly. In professional journals and publications, as well as in statements for popular consumption, scientists have sometimes contributed to uncritical thinking regarding the potential application of scientific developments to the control of human behavior. Some scientists have done so in their zeal to make the public aware of the dangerous tool which the techniques for manipulating behavior could become in the hands of totalitarian and other irresponsible practitioners. A common error has been to assume that some scientific development, or some explicit scientific theory, was being applied by Commanist "brainwashers" and other manipulators (2, 4, 5, 18). It has been pointed out that the ways in which the popular communication media define the problem are akin to those of prescientific times (56). Raymond Bauer (2) has noted the resemblance of the concept "brainwashing" to demonology: the idea of the "brainwashed" does not differ greatly from that of the "possessed" (6). Viewing the problem in magical or diabolical terms is not an altogetlier irrational analogy, given the existence of those who simultaneously practice and seek perfection of the means for controlling behavior and conceive of their efforts as directed toward "possessing the will" of their victims. Thus, the Chinese Communist leaders not only find nothing to resent in charges that they "brainwash" their opponents (cf. Scientific sobriety demands that the dry examination of experimental evidence replace the lively books on exorcism of ancient times. As in many contemporary works which are closer to the livelier lore of ancient times, however, the present review deals with human concerns antedating science that are at the root of the central question: "Can man really be made to behave contrary to his profoundest beliefs and his conscious self-interest? Various writers have invested the techniques of interrogators with the magic of science by attaching technical labels to what actually have been traditional and pragmatic practices (2). In assuming the attitude of the "hard-headed" scientist toward the problem, there is a danger in falling into an equivalent misuse of science.